The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy impi threatened to break out of the, Zulu king Shaka is referenced in Jamaican, Shaka has been featured as a playable leader for the Zulu civilization in all six, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 01:06. "[22] It was composed of three elements: The expanding Zulu power inevitably clashed with European hegemony in the decades after Shaka's death. A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa – the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library, 2005. Soga implied as much when he used genealogical evidence to argue that the Zulu were an upstart group inferior in dignity and distinction to established chiefdoms in their region, for example, the Hlubi, Ndwandwe, and Dlamini lines. He was curious about their technological developments, was anxious to learn much more about warfare, and he was especially interested in the culture they represented. General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.D. In a two-day running battle, the Zulu inflicted a resounding defeat on their opponents. According to members of his family, Shaka's last words were: Hastily they buried his body in a grain-pit nearby. A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows. [31], Military historians of the Zulu War must also be considered for their description of Zulu fighting methods and tactics, including authors like Ian Knight and Robert Edgerton. Shaka won them over by subtler tactics, such as patronage and reward. [12] (He died in mysterious circumstances soon afterwards.) His outstanding deeds of courage attracted the attention of his overlord and, rising rapidly in Dingiswayo's army, he became one of his foremost commanders. His reforms of local society built on existing structures. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents – especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide (d. 1822). That year, Henry Francis Fynn and Francis Farewell visited Shaka. Most popular accounts are based on E.A. The climax came with the death of his mother Nandi in October 1827, huge numbers were put to death during the mourning ceremonies because they showed insufficient grief; and his armies were sent out to force the surrounding chiefdoms to grieve. When Senzangakhona (Shaka's father) died in 1816, Shaka's younger half-brother Sigujana assumed power as the legitimate heir to the Zulu chiefdom. His father Senzangakhona was a minor chief of the Zulu speaking clans, while his mother Nandi was the daughter of Chief Mbhengi of the rival Langeni clan. This was too much for his assailants and they leapt upon him, stabbing. Outwardly, he was tall and powerfully built, and his skill and daring gave him a natural mastery over the youths in his age group; inwardly, he was developing a thirst for power. South Africa Encyclopaedia: Prehistory to the year 2000, unpublished papers with SA History Online.|Who is Shaka Zulu? Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. Shaka, also spelled Chaka or Tshaka, (born c. 1787—died Sept. 22, 1828), Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa ’s Zulu Empire. In 1787 Shaka was born to Senzangakhona who was a minor chief of one of the clans of Zulu tribe. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. Shaka kaSenzangakhona also known as Shaka Zulu was the leader of the Zulu kingdom from 1816 to 1828. There is no evidence to suggest that Shaka betrayed Dingiswayo. The majority then submitted to Shaka. Emperor Shaka the Great is an epic poem based on the Zulu oral tradition, compiled in Zulu then translated by South African Poet Mazisi Kunene. credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation. Shaka later had to contend again with Zwide's son Sikhunyane in 1826. H F Fynn, who knew him well, found him intelligent and often amiable, and mentioned occasions that leave no doubt that Shaka was capable of generosity. According to popular belief, Shaka was an illegitimate child of Senzangakhona kaJama, a minor Zulu chief, and Nandi. Zwide later murdered Dingiswayo, and, when the leaderless Mthethwa state collapsed, Shaka immediately assumed leadership and began conquering surrounding chiefdoms himself, adding their forces to his own and building up a new kingdom. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). Yet, there is no doubt that he is considered a great man and one of the most famous of Africans. In Qwabe, Shaka may have intervened in an existing succession dispute to help his own choice, Nqetho, into power. These developments resulted in the evolution of powerful figures in later reigns with strong local power bases that they had been able to build up because of royal appointments and favours. The Gaza Empire. Losses were high overall but the efficiency of the new Shakan innovations was proved. [11], Another decisive fight eventually took place on the Mhlatuze river, at the confluence with the Mvuzane stream. And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past. He was conceived out of wedlock somewhere between 1781 and 1787. Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn, whose diary (actually a rewritten collage of various pap… In Shaka's time, these cowhide shields were supplied by the king, and they remained the king's property. Shaka had made enough enemies among his own people to hasten his demise. Shaka was born almost certainly in 1787. He never married nor had any recognized children, which was highly unusual. Shaka then led a fresh reserve some 70 miles (110 km) to the royal kraal of Zwide, ruler of the Ndwandwe, and destroyed it. Later, probably at the time of the Great Famine, known as the Madlantule (c.1802), Shaka was taken to the Mthethwa people, where shelter was found in the home of Nandi's aunt. Shaka's campaigns part of a larger chaos An increasingly cruel and paranoid Shaka Zulu was assassinated in 1828, but that didn't mark the end of his effects on the history of southern Africa. Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. The survivors of the main Ndwandwe force settled for a time on the upper Pongola River. Shaka's triumphs did not succeed in obliterating or diminishing the memories of his better-born rivals. [13], The first major clash after Shaka's death took place under his successor Dingane, against expanding European Voortrekkers from the Cape. Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position. The exact location is unknown. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa. His teachings greatly influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people. It was not until around 1825 that the two military leaders met, near Phongola, in their final meeting. The effects from Dutch pressure on the western African frontier by the end of the The military system thus helped develop a strong sense of identity in the kingdom as a whole. A more credible account is that the relationship between Nandi and Senzangakhona was illicit, and that Shaka was born in Langeni territory at the Nguga homestead of Nandi's uncle. "[16] Furthermore, Zulus under Shaka sometimes advanced more slowly. Part of the main Ndwandwe force under Shoshangane, together with the Jere under Zwangendaba, the Maseko under Ngwane, and the Msene led by Nxaba, fled northwards. He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom. Age-grade groupings of various sorts were common in the Bantu culture of the day, and indeed are still important in much of Africa. In that encounter, Zwide's mother Ntombazi, a Sangoma (Zulu seer or shaman), was killed by Shaka. His mother Nandi was the daughter of the rival clan chief Mbhengi. [15] Dingane ruled for some twelve years, during which time he fought, disastrously, against the Voortrekkers, and against another half-brother, Mpande, who, with Boer and British support, took over the Zulu leadership in 1840, ruling for some 30 years. These and other sources such as A.T. Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture. [7], In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. Napier", "The Zulu Military Organization and the Challenge of 1879", "Shaka Zulu's brutality was exaggerated, says new book", "Warfare, Political Leadership, and State Formation: The Case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shaka&oldid=994882615, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2015, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The main force, the "chest," closed with the enemy, While the enemy impi was pinned by the "chest," the "horns" would, The "loins," a large reserve, was hidden, seated, behind the "chest" with their backs to the battle, for the sake of them not losing any confidence. Shaka Zulu was the illegitimate son of Senzangakona, King of the Zulus. While in the Mthethwa army Shaka became engrossed in problems of strategy and battle tactics, and Dingiswayo contributed much toward Shaka's later accomplishments in war. [16] Different coloured shields distinguished different amabutho within Shaka's army. By the time the first white traders arrived at Port … The earliest are two eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the last four years of his reign. Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to have come out of Africa.[25]. Malcolm in 1950. At the time of his death, Shaka ruled over 250,000 people and could muster more than 50,000 warriors. Shaka Zulu established the Zulu Empire and revolutionized warfare in Southern Africa in the early 19th Century. 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