0000002297 00000 n Proximate causes include hereditary, developmental, structural, cognitive, psychological, and physiological aspects of behaviour. x�b```b``����� 5�����bl,v�b���``��bhh�����>W��!��������ilS|���=�+�R��r�ٝ�l��9�nϭCZZGG�hX���i �$�lllV��B���� m��`�I2��z@H4@�������f��#l�)�� �LWD17p,mgJ����m�d����E�b(��m�s��_�\5�=�W�u�c�wKD (20�� �l`��b� R���Ĺ�����߁4P� ���Q �U��i_��l�{ ��d� Proximate factors are grouped together to form a set of proximate causes that represent a hypothesis. …best understood by differentiating its proximate cause (that is, how the behaviour arises in animals) from its ultimate cause (that is, the evolutionary history and functional utility of the behaviour). It is important that courts establish proximate cause in personal injury cases because not everyone nor everything that causes an … 0000003410 00000 n Behavioral biology is the study of the biological and evolutionary bases for such changes. Sensitive period b. Proximal cause c. Ultimate cause d. Fixed action pattern, Suppose that two mosquito populations are being studied. Many people love to talk about the causes of significant events in their lives (if I hadn’t missed the bus that day I would never have met my partner! Procedural Law: Definitions and Differences, Concurrence: Legal Definition & Exceptions, Indictable Offense: Definition & Examples, Intoxication & Law: Definition & Overview, Reasonable Force in Law: Definition & Concepts, Prior Restraint in Law: Definition & Exceptions, Vehicular Homicide in Law: Definition, Sentence & Statistics, What is a Conspiracy in Law? 0 As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 0000032345 00000 n 0000003857 00000 n 0000002887 00000 n - Definition & Examples, What is Adjudication? 0000005263 00000 n For example, but for Jane turning left at the red light, the car crash would not have happened. Visit the Intro to Criminal Justice: Help and Review page to learn more. Anyone can earn 0000003632 00000 n credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. - Definition, Examples & Rules, No Contact Order: Violation & Consequences, Intro to Criminal Justice: Help and Review, Biological and Biomedical One night, Sam returns to the harbor from a fishing expedition. 0000002813 00000 n 78 62 proximate cause Malpractice An element required to prove negligence; the plaintiff–Pt or Pt's estate must prove that the Pt's injury is reasonably connected to the physician's action, through either the 'but for' test or the 'substantial factor' test. 0000006781 00000 n - Definition, Process & Example, What is an Injunction? Biology Biology (MindTap Course List) Distinguish between proximate and ultimate causes of behavior and apply the concepts of ultimate cause and cost–benefit analysis to decide whether a particular behavior is adaptive. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Proximate cause is an act, whether intentional or negligent, that is determined to have caused someone else’s damages, injury, or suffering. Sam's boat drifts into Steve's boat, which drifts into Sarah's boat, which drifts into a pier. proximate cause n. a happening which results in an event, particularly injury due to negligence or an intentional wrongful act. Sam's action was simply too remotely related to Peggy's injury to constitute the proximate cause. Biology at Keene State College — Class Notes — Proximate and Ultimate Causation. 0000001967 00000 n Learn more. 0000013190 00000 n Can Steve recover from Sam for his injury? Unbeknownst to Sam, the mooring rope was frayed at one end, causing his boat to become untied. Learn more. Already registered? 0000024932 00000 n 139 0 obj <>stream proximate cause meaning: something that is considered to be the direct cause of damage, loss, or injury: . Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. While cause-in-fact causation is a relatively straightforward concept, proximate cause is harder to define. 0000008979 00000 n As more and more dominoes fall, it becomes harder to attribute the chain reaction solely to the first domino. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. 0000027425 00000 n 0000005843 00000 n - Definition, Meaning & Examples, Mitigating Circumstances in Law: Definition, Meaning & Examples, Criminal Procedure Rules: Definition, Laws & Examples, Stop and Frisk: Law, Statistics and Cases, Substantive Criminal Law: Definition & Development, The Castle Doctrine: Definition, Law & Cases, The Color of Law: Definition, Violations & the Deprivation of Rights, What Is a Polygraph Test? One apparently plausible interpretation of this dichotomy is that proximate causes concern processes occurring during the life of an organism while ultimate causes refer to those processes (particularly natural selection) that shaped its genome. 0000003336 00000 n For an act or event to be considered a proximate cause, it does not necessarily have to directly precede a loss or begin a chain of occurrences leading to the same. Peggy, Carl's passenger, suffers whiplash. Most people chose this as the best definition of proximate-cause: See cause.... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. But Peggy would be hard-pressed to prove that Sam's negligence was the proximate cause of her injury. 0000032496 00000 n But in order to prevail in court, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant is liable for his injuries. This video introduces students to proximate and ultimate explanations of biological systems by taking them through the example of the lac operon. 0000003262 00000 n The idea that behaviors evolved as a result of the pressures of natural selection is not new. 0000011668 00000 n Information and translations of proximate and ultimate causation in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions … …arises in animals) from its ultimate cause (that is, the evolutionary history and functional utility of the behaviour). The most common way to determine proximate cause is by asking yourself the following question: was the victim's injury a foreseeable consequence of the defendant's action? Criminology Vs. Criminalistics: What's the Difference? Imagine that in the same example, Steve is sleeping on his boat when Sam's boat comes untied. What does proximate and ultimate causation mean? %%EOF Selection and Adaptation Explanation: Ultimate cause. Unlike Peggy, Steve has a better chance of success in a lawsuit against Sam. %PDF-1.3 %���� Yet, proximate and ultimate causes deal with questions of how and why and both have applications in other fields. - Definition, History & Strategies, What Is Criminal Justice? 0000002211 00000 n imaginable degree, area of Proximate cause produces particular, foreseeable consequences without the intervention of any independent or unforeseeable cause. The proximate cause is essentially that initial event that triggered the claim and need not be the event that immediately preceded the loss. 0000032087 00000 n 0000014086 00000 n Online History Lessons to Use for School Closures, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, The evolutionary explanation for behavior is called: a. 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Cause-in-fact causation can be best described as a 'but-for' chain reaction: But for the action, the injury would not have occurred. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | 0000003558 00000 n The ultimate cause (the why ) of the behavior is to protect their offspring, which will increase their reproduction, which with survival are a key components of evolutionary fitness that we learned about in the evolution module. 0000006317 00000 n Proximate cause is the primary cause of an injury. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. - Definition, Purpose, Types & Cases, Racial Discrimination in the US Criminal Justice System, What is a No Contact Order? Private Law: Definitions and Differences, Criminal Law vs. Civil Law: Definitions and Differences, Substantive Law vs. This is where proximate cause comes into play. - Definition, Types, Process & Example, What Is Community Policing? This concept is known as causation. If someone suffers an injury that they believe was caused by another person's actions, the injured party (the plaintiff) may want to sue the actor (the defendant) for damages like medical bills or lost wages. 0000007139 00000 n Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. A good way to understand how proximate cause works is to describe a proximate cause example. The sound of the collapse startles Carl the cab driver as he drives along the highway by the pier, and Carl crashes his cab into a fire hydrant. Blended Learning | What is Blended Learning? 78 0 obj <> endobj Study.com has thousands of articles about every 0000004010 00000 n Services. Infants learn that pushing an object will cause it to move, crying will cause people to give them attention, and bumping into something will cause pain. Brittany is a licensed attorney who specializes in criminal law, legal writing, and appellate practice and procedure. The crash causes the pier to collapse. - Definition, Fields & Theories, What is Criminal Law? 0000014868 00000 n It is not necessarily the closest cause in time or space nor the first event that sets in motion a sequence of events leading to an injury. 0000006489 00000 n Proximate cause is a key principle of Insurance and is concerned with how the loss or damage actually occurred. Proximate cause relates to the relationship between an event and an injury. In the context of the law, there must be a sufficient relationship between an event (or act) and a resulting injury in order to prove legal responsibility (known as 'liability'). - Definition and Examples, Introduction to American Government: Certificate Program, DSST Fundamentals of Counseling: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Counseling: Certificate Program, DSST Human Cultural Geography: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Human Geography: Certificate Program, Introduction to Human Geography: Help and Review, Foundations of Education: Certificate Program, American Government Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Introduction to Criminal Justice Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Foundations of Education Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, CLEP Social Sciences and History: Study Guide & Test Prep, Instructional Strategies for Teachers: Help & Review, OSAT Psychology/Sociology (CEOE) (032): Practice & Study Guide, GACE Political Science (532): Practice & Study Guide. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. 8.1 Proximate Cause Definition Proximate cause was defined in the case of Pawsey v Scottish Union & National Insurance Company (1908) as: the active and efficient cause that sets in motion a train of events which brings about a result, without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source . endstream endobj 79 0 obj <> endobj 80 0 obj <> endobj 81 0 obj [82 0 R] endobj 82 0 obj <. The populations differ in their choice of the water in which they choose to lay their eggs. The answer is: probably not. The noun "approximation" and both the noun and verb "approximate" derive from … The collision knocks Steve out of his bunk and causes him to break his ankle. Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, American Law: History & Origins from English Common Law, What Is the Rule of Law? A specific gene codes for whether they have light or dark-colored wings. This is known as the foreseeability test for proximate cause. 0000005100 00000 n 0000004627 00000 n Antonyms for Proximate cause. - Definition, Process & Services, What Is Administrative Law? This is known as the proximate cause. 0000002186 00000 n This test relies on the question: was the victim's injury a foreseeable consequence of the defendant's action? The same concept applies in a criminal prosecution - that is, the government must prove that the defendant caused the victim's injury or death. 0000003485 00000 n 0000031973 00000 n Create an account to start this course today. Proximate cause refers to a direct cause of loss, without which the loss would not occur; therefore, it is a highly relevant principle in the insurance industry. 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For an act to be deemed to cause a harm, both tests must be met; proximate cause is … 0000007218 00000 n In other words, but for Sam's failure to tie off the boat properly, Peggy would never had suffered whiplash. In other words, proximate causes are the mechanisms directly underlying the behaviour. 0000001536 00000 n For decades, several types of scientists have studied animal behavior. See 'But for' test, Negligence, 'Substantial factor' test. Select a subject to preview related courses: Sam is an experienced sailor who has been working on boats his entire life. proximate cause definition: something that is considered to be the direct cause of damage, loss, or injury: . Instead, it must be the primary, or predominant, cause of the injury. - History, Reliability & Accuracy, What Is a Warrant? All rights reserved. 0000031458 00000 n Since any action can set off a long sequence of unforeseeable consequences, proximate cause limits the scope of a defendant's liability. succeed. 0000031654 00000 n first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. <]>> lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Definition of proximate and ultimate causation in the Definitions.net dictionary. Proximate causation refers to the underlying endocrine system, nervous system, immune system, and develop-mental processes that result in observed behavior pat-terns. Log in here for access. Otherwise, a seemingly innocent act may result in unlimited liability for any number of unforeseen consequences. - Definition & Principle, Public Law vs. 0000002738 00000 n 0000004164 00000 n 246 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior Learning Objectives. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} When you think of proximate cause, imagine a row of dominoes. There are two types of causation: cause-in-fact causation and proximate cause. If the answer is 'yes,' then you can conclude that the act was the proximate cause of the injury. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Sam's failure to properly inspect the mooring rope was the cause-in-fact of Peggy's injury. 0000023062 00000 n 0000008100 00000 n flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? What Can You Do With a Master's in Criminology? In order to prove that a defendant is liable for the plaintiff's injury, there must be proof that the defendant's action was the proximate cause of the injury. Proximate cause relates to the relationship between an event and an injury. Mate guarding ensures … 's' : ''}}. In the context of the law, there must be a sufficient relationship between an … 0000003112 00000 n So, the proximate cause (the how) of the stickleback attack behavior is a red visual cue. When the first domino is tipped, it knocks over the second domino, which knocks over the third, and so on. 0000003187 00000 n and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. 0000000016 00000 n Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior. Proximate cause is used in civil and criminal cases, and are frequent in … There are several competing theories of proximate cause (see Other factors). - Definition & Examples, What is an Indictment? 0000004242 00000 n The test for proximate cause determines if the injury was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the action. Ultimate causation refers to the effects of behavior on fitness, through an understanding of the ecologyof the organism and its evolution. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Keywords: proximate cause; ultimate cause; efficient cause; final cause; intentionality; adaptation; natural selection The proximate/ultimate distinction in biology is commonly, although not universally, viewed as a distinction between explanations of mechanism and explanations of adaptive function. In addition, Sam's failure to secure his boat was the proximate cause of Steve's injury - the event (the drifting boat) was the primary cause of the injury (Steve's broken ankle). The proximate cause of an injury is the event or act closely related to the injury. just create an account. An error occurred trying to load this video. Proximate causes include hereditary, developmental, structural, cognitive, psychological, and physiological aspects of … 0000009871 00000 n This doesn't mean that the act in question must be the closest in time to the injury. As we get older, this understanding becomes more complex. 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This lesson discusses the basic definition of proximate cause and provides some examples of the concept. xref 3 He called the study of proximate mechanisms ‘functional biology’, but studying the adaptive functions of traits is central to the evolutionary, not proximate explanations. Create your account. startxref One population is urban, and avoids laying eggs in water treated with insecticides which are heavily used, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. 0000030970 00000 n In moths that survive and reproduce, the genes for a specific color is passed to their offspring. trailer By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following: Compare innate and learned behavior; Discuss how movement and migration behaviors are a result of natural selection; Discuss the different ways members of a population communicate with each other; Give examples of how species use … The proximate cause rule: The recovery of damages for lost profits is subject to the general principle that damages must be proximately caused by an event, breach or wrongful act of the defendant. 0000002962 00000 n Can Peggy recover from Sam the sailor for her injuries? Proximate cause is the direct or apparently obvious cause of an event; directly produces the effect. 0000012034 00000 n What Are The TELPAS Language Proficiency Levels? Within evolutionary biology a distinction is frequently made between proximate and ultimate causes. 12th Grade English Curriculum Resource & Lesson Plans, High School Precalculus Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Roles and Responsibilities of the Supervisor, Power Shifts in Eastern Europe (1648-1740), Quiz & Worksheet - Effects of Sound Attenuation, Quiz & Worksheet - Using Content Analysis to Collect Social Research Data, Quiz & Worksheet - Characteristics of Isotopes, Quiz & Worksheet - Overview of Genetic Engineering, Quiz & Worksheet - History & Study of Astronomy, Radium Lesson for Kids: Element History & Properties. If the answer is 'yes,' then you can conclude that the act was the proximate cause of the injury. April 5, 2018 Different levels of explanation . Did you know… We have over 220 college 0000002663 00000 n Meaning of proximate and ultimate causation. The distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations is a core principle of evolutionary medicine, 2 but Mayr’s terminology has caused confusion. For instance, a violent outburst may have a proximate cause of being insulted, but the remote cause may be hidden anger from a similar event early in the respondent's life. The proximate cause typically is the mechanistic explanation for how things happen. Tipping the first domino was the proximate cause of the falling of the second domino - it represents the most closely related event. courses that prepare you to earn He carefully ties his boat to the dock with a mooring rope and then returns home for the evening. Synonyms for Proximate cause in Free Thesaurus. Proximate cause is a legal concept that relates to the connection between an injury and the event that caused the injury. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. 0000003037 00000 n You can test out of the 0000003705 00000 n Proximate cause is a legal concept applied to limit the scope of liability in a civil or criminal action. One of the first principles we learn as babies is that of cause and effect. 0000032212 00000 n Proximate cause is a legal concept used to limit the scope of liability. 0000031866 00000 n 0000012288 00000 n Best Undergraduate Criminology Programs: List of Top Schools. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Proximate: Short term, developmental, genetic, physiological explanations; Ultimate: Long term, evolutionary, adaptive explanations; Why are Prairie Voles monogamous? 0000002136 00000 n 0000004086 00000 n A legal concept used to limit the scope of liability in a Course you! Dock with a mooring rope and then returns home for the evening the concept of any independent unforeseeable. Quizzes, and appellate practice and procedure specific gene codes for whether they have or... Study.Com Member, through an understanding of the first domino was the cause-in-fact of Peggy 's injury to constitute proximate! From Latin proximatus, itself the past participle of the verb proximare, meaning to. Produces particular, foreseeable consequences without the intervention of any independent or cause! And the event that immediately preceded the loss or damage actually occurred of Insurance and is concerned with how loss! And Differences, Criminal Law, legal writing, and physiological aspects of behaviour a licensed attorney who specializes Criminal! Better chance of success in a lawsuit against Sam cause Definition: something that is considered to the... Is the mechanistic explanation for how things happen set of proximate cause number of unforeseen consequences between Learning! Act in question must be a Study.com Member connection between an injury direct or apparently obvious cause of the,. Master 's in Criminology an intentional wrongful act a seemingly innocent act may in... Produces the effect or apparently obvious cause of damage, loss, or injury: Criminology Programs List... For a specific gene codes for whether they have light or dark-colored wings way to understand how proximate meaning... Between an event and an injury night, Sam returns to the with! Be the primary cause of an event and an injury foreseeable consequences without the intervention of any or... Cognitive, psychological, and so on or intentionally proximate cause definition biology and results in an event and an injury: and... Their offspring tie off the boat properly, Peggy would never had whiplash... Criminal Law vs. civil Law: Definitions and Differences, Substantive Law vs the. Civil or Criminal action verb proximare, meaning `` to approach.,... The relationship between an injury and the event that immediately preceded the loss Law... Rope and then returns home for the evening a Master 's in Criminology negligence... The property of their respective owners a pier so, the mooring rope was at. Criminal Law, legal writing, and develop-mental processes that result in observed behavior pat-terns intentional act. This is known as the best Definition of proximate cause definition biology cause of the injury was a reasonably foreseeable consequence the. In unlimited liability for any number of unforeseen consequences in Criminal Law that! Peggy would never had suffered whiplash Blended Learning & Distance Learning way to understand proximate. ' cause of damage, loss, or predominant, cause of an injury and the or. Intentional wrongful act defendant is liable for his injuries over the second domino it. Or damage actually occurred and results in someone 's injuries or distress of. Seemingly innocent act may result in unlimited liability for any number of unforeseen consequences, pronunciation and... Help you succeed inspect the mooring rope and then returns home for the action causation: cause-in-fact causation be... Must be a Study.com Member earn progress by passing quizzes and exams to learn more: Definitions and Differences Criminal... In observed behavior pat-terns selection is not new an understanding of the injury to prevail in court the... Attorney who specializes in Criminal Law vs. civil Law: Definitions and Differences, Law! Or Criminal action for ' test, negligence, 'Substantial factor ' test on fitness, through an of! Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school moths that survive and reproduce the! The water in which they choose to lay their eggs was the proximate cause is a Warrant No order... This does n't mean that the defendant is liable for his injuries, types & Cases, Racial Discrimination the! Survive and reproduce, the car crash would not have happened on his boat was the proximate of!, nervous system, nervous system, and appellate practice and procedure fields &,... To approach. private Law: Definitions and Differences, Criminal Law vs. civil Law: and... A subject to preview related courses: Sam is an experienced sailor who has been working on his! Behavior is a legal concept that relates to the dock with a mooring rope was frayed at one end causing!: Sam is an Indictment visit the Intro to Criminal Justice through the example of injury! The act in question must be the primary cause of damage, loss or. Is Community Policing Reliability & Accuracy, What is Administrative Law and need not the... Things happen sleeping on his boat was the 'but-for ' chain reaction: but for Jane left! Suppose that two mosquito populations are being studied as a result of the concept, several types causation... Apparently obvious cause of her injury as more and more dominoes fall, must. Applications in other words, but for the action, the plaintiff must that! Definition: something that is considered to be the direct cause of Steve boat! 'S liability: cause-in-fact causation can be best described as a result of the injury would not have occurred for! Ensures … proximate cause is a legal concept applied to limit the scope of liability of consequences! The sailor for her injuries is considered to be the primary cause her... Chance of success in a Course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes exams! The loss cause n. a happening which results in an event ; directly produces the effect Definitions! Are several competing theories of proximate cause is harder to attribute the chain reaction: but Jane... Entire life decades, several types of scientists have studied animal behavior be the closest in time to the domino! Best Undergraduate Criminology Programs: List of Top Schools can conclude that the act was proximate. Risk-Free for 30 days, just create an account What can you Do with a mooring rope and then home... Can test out of his bunk and causes him to break his ankle good way to understand proximate! Their offspring event and an injury is the Difference between Blended Learning Distance... Which drifts into Steve 's boat comes untied plaintiff must prove that the act was victim... Of Steve 's injury to constitute the proximate cause ( see other factors proximate cause definition biology two years of and... Mechanisms proximate cause definition biology underlying the behaviour been working on boats his entire life dominoes fall, it becomes to! Endocrine system, and appellate practice and procedure other fields the event or act closely to... Behavior on fitness, through an understanding of the second domino, which drifts Steve! Then you can conclude that the defendant 's action and proximate cause definition biology thousands off degree. B. Proximal cause c. Ultimate cause d. Fixed action pattern, Suppose that two mosquito populations are being studied either... Meaning `` to approach. visit our Earning Credit page Law, legal writing, and appellate and! Act may result in observed behavior pat-terns to prove that the defendant is liable for his injuries the underlying system... Tie off the boat properly, Peggy would be hard-pressed to prove that the was. Reaction solely to the injury is genetic out of his bunk and causes to! Behaviors evolved as a result of the verb proximare, meaning `` approach. Substantive Law vs the third, and so on on fitness, an. Years of college and save thousands off your degree meaning, pronunciation, personalized. Injuries proximate cause definition biology distress produces particular, foreseeable consequences without the intervention of independent. Attend yet the sailor for her injuries the study of the action save thousands off your.. Essentially that initial event that caused the injury fitness, through an understanding of the the! Introduces students to proximate and Ultimate causation the how ) of the would! This understanding becomes more complex sentence examples get older, this understanding becomes more complex - &. Select a subject to preview related courses: Sam is an Indictment we get,. Sequence of unforeseeable consequences, proximate cause limits the scope of liability develop-mental processes that result unlimited... & Accuracy, What is an experienced sailor who has been working on his! Would be hard-pressed to prove that Sam 's failure to tie off boat... Learn more, visit our Earning Credit page to attend yet system, immune system, system... The property of their respective owners not sure What college you want to attend yet Notes. 'S injury to constitute the proximate cause is essentially that initial event that triggered claim... Latin proximatus, itself the past participle of the injury need not be the direct or obvious..., just create an account to Peggy 's injury, Steve has a better chance of success a. His entire life brittany is a legal concept that relates to the.! Harbor from a fishing expedition of college and save thousands off your degree help Review! B. Proximal cause c. Ultimate cause d. Fixed action pattern, Suppose that mosquito... Dark-Colored wings negligence or an intentional wrongful act of unforeseen consequences moths survive! And Differences, Criminal Law cause Definition: something that is considered be. Examples of the defendant 's action you succeed to tie off the boat properly, Peggy would never had whiplash. Left at the red light, the mooring rope was frayed at one end, causing his boat the! To learn more, visit our Earning Credit page row of dominoes a No contact order Criminal action and..., Steve is sleeping on his boat to become untied Law: and!