[7], Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced [ˈɛɪjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl] (listen)) is one of Iceland's smaller ice caps located in the far south of the island. Expanding gases from the rapid vaporization of ice started a series of moderate phreatomagmatic explosions (which result from the contact of water and magma) that sent a plume of steam and ash almost 7 miles (11 km) into the atmosphere. At 250 ppm, death can occur within a few days. The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano had a huge impact on air travel, changing the assessment of risk by the aviation sector and catalyzing new lines of scientific investigation. Material (tephra) in the ice cauldrons around the volcanic vents: 30 million cubic metres (39,000,000 cu yd), Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, carried by floods down the outlet, Airborne tephra that was carried to the east and south of the volcano, uncompacted tephra fallout from eruption plume: 100 million cubic metres (130,000,000 cu yd), This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 14:40. The erupting lava cooled very fast, which created a cloud of highly abrasive, glass-rich ash. The earthquake swarm was followed by the onset of a seismic eruption tremor. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. [41][42][43], On 25 March 2010, while studying the eruption, scientists witnessed, for the first time in history, the formation of a pseudocrater during a steam explosion. The lava was alkali olivine basalt[40] and was relatively viscous, causing the motion of the lava stream to the west and east of the fissure to be slow. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Neither phase of the eruption was unusually powerful. [69], At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). The first phase of the 2010 eruption began late on the evening of 20 March at the Eyjafjallajökull. Explosive activity from this new crater was observed with emission of small quantities of ash. The eruption started on 20 March. Corrections? Composite map of the volcanic ash cloud spanning 14–25 April 2010, Volume of erupted material and magma discharge, Short- and long-term weather and environmental effects, Measurements made by using maps and measurement tools from Fasteignaskrá Íslandskort, Meteorological Institute of Iceland: Eruption in Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, Kvöldfréttir Stöðvar Tvö "Viðtal við Ármann Höskuldsson eldfjallafræðing", 2010 eruption series in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system, Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue, Air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, knock on impact on the economy and cultural events, previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821, Effects of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management", "Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull Status Report: 11:00 GMT, 7 June 2010", "Eruption in Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Over", "Eruption in Iceland – frequently asked questions", "Iceland prepares for second, more devastating volcanic eruption", "BBC Newsnight interview with President Grímsson of Iceland, 20 April 2010", "Scientists picture Icelandic volcano's 'plumbing, "Eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system", "Seismic Signs of Magma Pathways through the Crust in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, South Iceland", "Jarðskjálftahrina undir Eyjafjallajökli", "GPS time series for Eyjafjallajökull and Katla Volcano", UNEP Year Book2011, An Overview of Our Changing Environment, "Caistor children flee as Iceland volcano erupts | Grimsby Telegraph", Volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallaglacier – flights to Iceland are on hold, "Fyrsta vél frá Boston í loftið klukkan hálf fimm", "Litlar líkur taldar á öðru gosi við Eyjafjallajökul", "Volcano Erupts Under Eyjafjallajökull – The Reykjavik Grapevine", "Gosið enn í gangi – Farið að bera á öskufalli", "Ný gossprunga – skráð 01.04.2010 kl. In April 2010, Eyjafjallajökull, a volcano in southern Iceland, began spewing several kilometres of volcanic ash into the atmosphere.The cloud of ash forced the greatest airspace closure since World War II, cancelling nearly 100,000 flights and disrupting the travel plans of tourists and business travelers alike throughout northern Europe. By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater. About 500 farmers and their families had to escape from the areas of Fljótshlíð, Eyjafjöll, and Landeyjar were evacuated overnight (including a group of 30 schoolchildren and their three teachers[28][29] from Caistor Grammar School in England), and flights to and from Reykjavík and Keflavík International Airport were postponed, but on the evening of 21 March, domestic and international air traffic was allowed again. Late on 20 March 2010 an eruption began at Fimmvörðuháls, an area around 1,000 m elevation in a ~ 2-km-wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull. The molten lava flowed more than 4,000 m (13,000 ft) to the north-east of the fissure and into Hrunagil canyon, forming a lava fall more than 200 m (660 ft) long and slowly approaching Þórsmörk, but had not yet[update] reached the flood plains of Krossá. Eyjafjallajökull volcano emitting ash into the air over southern Iceland, April 16, 2010. The 2010 eruption caused the most widespread air travel disruption for 65 years. Two new craters were formed in this eruption called Magni and Móði after the sons of Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Teams from the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue were stationed at the eruption site as part of standard safety measures and to assist in enforcing access restrictions. [citation needed], Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%—much higher than in the lava flows. [36] This rise in water temperature was thought to be related to the eruption nearby and was affecting part of the Krossá drainage basin. At around 07:00 on 22 March, an explosion launched eruption columns as far as 4 km (2.5 mi) straight up into the air. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [49], After a short hiatus in eruptive activity, and a large increase in seismic activity 23:00 on 13 April and 1:00 on 14 April, a new set of craters opened early in the morning of 14 April 2010 under the volcano's ice-covered central summit caldera. The latter eruption continued intermittently for nearly 14 months. A series of vents along a 2-km-long north–south-oriented fissure was active, with meltwater flowing mostly down the northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. Most Recent Weekly Report: 27 October-2 November 2010 Cite this Report. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption sequence of 2010, which lasted from January until May of that year, began with the onset of clusters of small earthquakes, and by early March the earthquake activity had increased in intensity and frequency. [58], On 21 June 2010, data from seismic recorders in the area indicated that the frequency and strength of earth tremors had diminished, but were continuing. The first eruption phase ejected olivine basaltic andesite lava[11] several hundred metres into the air in what is known as an effusive eruption. From the initial eruptive activity at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in 2010, that was a lava producing eruption 20 March - 12 April, preceding the explosive eruption. Initially detected visually, the eruption was seen at 2352 that day as a red cloud above the site. As of 15 April, the eruption was not large enough to have an effect on global temperatures like that of Mount Pinatubo and other major past volcanic eruptions. [64] In Scotland, the number of phone calls to health services for respiratory and eye irritation did not rise significantly. However, the second phase of Eyjafjallajökull's eruption lasted longer than that of Mount Pinatubo. High-fluoride Hekla eruptions pose a threat to foraging livestock, especially sheep. With the first eruption occurring on March 20, 2010, there was little explosive activity but some production of … A study by the Icelandic Meteorological Office published on December 2009 indicated an increase in seismic activity around the Eyjafjallajökull area during the years 2006–2009. Shortly afterward, the water level returned to normal and water temperature decreased. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010 had a huge impact on the aviation industry in Europe (Donovan & Oppenheimer, 2010). 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